海南七星彩

中国蛙类养殖疾病病原学研究进展_表象与防治

时间:2019-5-14

蛙科中的牛蛙、黑斑蛙、虎纹蛙、棘胸蛙、美国青蛙等已进行人工养殖,取得了较好的经济效益。很多养殖户高密度养殖养蛙,增加了蛙病暴发的概率。20 世纪90 年代,以爱德华氏菌病、肝肿大病、烂皮病和歪脖子病等疾病为代表,进入21 世纪出现了败血病、金黄杆菌病和金黄色葡萄球菌“白内障”等新型蛙病。

WALEIJIBINGZHONGLEIFANDUO、HAINANQIXINGCAIXIANGGUANDEWENZHANGSHAO、YANJIUBUGOUQUANMIAN,NANYIDUIZHENGXIAYAO,LANYONGKANGSHENGSUYINQILEYIXILIEYANGZHIWENTI,RUNAIYAOJUNZHUDECHANSHENG、SHUITIHUANJINGWENTI、WAROUCHANPINDEANQUANXINGDENG。BENWENZONGSHULEXIJUN、BINGDU、ZHENJUN、JISHENGCHONGYINQIWALEIJIBINGDEBINGYUANXUEYANJIUJINZHAN,YIQIWEIWOGUOZHUYAOYANGZHIWALEIDEJIBINGFANGZHITIGONGCANKAO。

海南七星彩1 XIJUNXINGBINGYUANJIQIYINQIDEJIBING

WALEIXIJUNXINGJIBINGZHONGLEIFANDUO,KANGJUNYAOWUCHENGLEZUIJIANDANYOUXIAODEZHILIAOFANGFA,DAOZHIXIJUNKANGYAOXINGZENGQIANG。SUIZHEYANJIUDESHENRU,YUELAIYUEDUODEBINGYUANJUNBEIFAXIANBINGJINXINGLEJIANDING,XIAMIANZONGSHULEMUQIANYIFAXIANDEXIJUNXINGBINGYUANDEYANJIUJINZHAN。

1.1 嗜水气单胞菌

1.1.1 红腿病

海南七星彩BINGWASHIYUBUZHEN,XINGDONGCHIHUAN,TUIBUBIAOMIANCHUXIANHONGBAN,TUINEIBUHONGZHONG,FUBUJITOUFUBUBIAOMIANDAIYOUHONGBAN。GANZANG、SHENZANG、PIZANGDENGNEIZANGQIGUANCHONGXUEZHONGDA。SHISHUIQIDANBAOJUNFENMINEIDUSUHERONGXUESUDENGZHIBINGYINZIYINQIWADEHONGTUIBING。HUCHENGYUDENGDEYAOMINSHIYANBIAOMING,KANEIMEISU、ENNUOSHAXING、XINMEISUDUISHISHUIQIDANBAOJUNJUYOUYIZHIZUOYONG。YONGSHISHUIQIDANBAOJUNDEMIEHUOYIMIAOMIANYIDEWAKANGTIXIAOJIAGAOYUDUIZHAOZU,WADEKANGBINGNENGLIDAFUTIGAO,MIANYIBAOHULVDA75%。

1.1.2 烂趾病

海南七星彩GAIBINGSHISHISHUIQIDANBAOJUNYINQIDELINGYIZHONGJIBING。BINGWAZHIBIAOMIANPIFUTUOLUO,ZHIGULUCHU,PIFUKUILAN,XINGDONGHUANMAN,FUBUJISHUI,YANSHI。ZHANGJIANPINGDENGYANZHENGLEFUKUINUOTONGLEI、BUFENTOUBAOLEIKANGSHENGSU、β- NEIXIANANLEIKANGSHENGSUDUIGAIJUNYOUYIZHIZUOYONG。

1.1.3 GANZHONGDABING

BINGWAGANZANGZHONGDA,SHIZHENGCHANGWADELIANGDAOSANBEI,NEIZANGQICHONGXUE,TIBIAOKUILAN。TUOBUMEISU、KANEIMEISU、XINMEISUSANZHONGKANGJUNYAOWUDUIGAIJUNJUYOUYIZHIZUOYONG。

1.1.4 腹水病

海南七星彩BINGWAFUBUYOUDALIANGFUSHUI,CHANGDAOCHONGXUEHONGZHONG,GANZANGZHONGDA。FUBENNIKAO、XINMEISU、HUANGAN+TMP、KANEIMEISUDENGYAOWUDUIGAIJUNGAODUMINGAN。

1.1.5 腐皮病

SHISHUIQIDANBAOJUNGANRANKEYINFAFUPIBING。BINGWAPIFUCHUXIANBAIBAN,NEIZANGQIGUANHUAISI,SHENZANGYINGHUA。YAOMINSHIYANFAXIAN,LIUSUANAMIKAXING、FUPAISUANDUIGAIJUNZUIWEIMINGAN。ZAIFENLIXIJUNSHIFAXIAN,BULANHANSHIXIJUNSHUDEMOUZHONGJUNYENENGZAOCHENGWADEFUPIBING,DANZHIBINGNENGLIJIAOSHISHUIQIDANBAOJUNRUO。

1.2 脑膜炎败血伊丽莎白菌

NAOMOYANBAIXUEYILISHABAIJUNZUICHUMINGMINGWEINAOMOYANBAIXUEHUANGGANJUN,YECHENGNAOMOYANNONGDUHUANGGANJUN,1994 NIANGAIMINGWEINAOMOYANBAIXUEJINHUANGGANJUN,2004 NIANYOUJIANGGAIJUNFENLEIDAOYILISHABAIJUNSHU。NAOMOYANBAIXUEJINHUANGGANJUNYINQIWADEBAINEIZHANGBING,SUCHENGWAIBOZIBING。BINGWAYANSHI,XINGDONGLANSAN,YANZHONGSHIFUBUCHAOSHANG,ZAISHUIMIANSHANGDAZHUANYOUDONG,ZHIDAOSIWANG。BINGWAPIFUKUILAN,CHENGHEISE,QINGWEISHIBOZIQINGXIANGYICE,ZHONGDUSHIBOZIYANZHONGWAIXIE。Zhen- Yu Xie DENGZAIBINGWADANAOZHONGFAXIANLESANZHONGJUN,ZHENGMINGLEGAIJUNNENGTUPOXUENAOPINGZHANG,SUNSHANGWASHENJING。BINGWAYANCHUXIANBAISEJINGTIMO,DANYANQIUNEIJINGTIZHUANGWUYICHANGBIANHUA。JIEPOUHOUFAXIANFUBUYOUJISHUI,GAN、CHANG、SHENDENGZANGQIYOUCHUXUEDIAN。ZHOUYONGCANDENGTONGGUOYIMIAOMIANYISHIYANFAXIAN,ZHUSHEZUHEPENWUZUDEFANGZHIXIAOGUODA95%YISHANG。

1.3 奇异变形杆菌

SHUXINHUADENGSHOUCICONGHUANYOULANPIBINGDEWATIZHONGFENLICHUQIYIBIANXINGGANJUN。HUANLANPIBING(FUPIBING)DEWATOUBUHEBEIBUPIFUKUILAN,DAIYOUBAIBAN;SHESHIJIANSHAO、YANSHI,CHANGDAONEIBUWUSHIWU,CHANGBIBO,YOUNIANYE,FEIBUPENGDACHONGMANQITI,GANZANG、PIZANGZHONGDA,PIZANGCHUXUE。

1.4 克氏耶尔森氏菌

KESHIYEERSENSHIJUNNENGYINQIWADEFUPIBING。SHUXINHUADENGSHIYANBIAOMING,QIYUQIYIBIANXINGGANJUNYINFADEZHENGZHUANGXIANGTONG。

1.5 温和气单胞菌
海南七星彩 该菌可引起蛙败血病。病蛙厌食,表皮皮肤无光泽且有白色或红色斑点,腹腔内有淡红色腹水,肝脏、肺囊等器官充血或因失血过多而呈白色,肠内无积累物,但有脓状物质,肠壁充血发红。

1.6 醋酸钙不动杆菌

海南七星彩GAIJUNKEYINQIWALEIBAINEIZHANG,SHIQUSHILI,DANYANQIUWANHAO,YANBUFUGAIYICENGBAISEMOZHUANGWU,GANZANG、DANZHONGDA。

1.7 洛菲不动杆菌

GAIJUNKEYINQIWADEFUSHUIBING。BINGWAFUBUZHANGDA,NEIYOUDALIANGJISHUI,TUIBUYOUHONGSEBANDIAN,GANZANGZHONGDA。YAOMINSHIYANZHENGMING,ZUOYANGFUSHAXING、FUFANGXINNUOMING、QINGDAMEISUDENGYAOWUDUIGAIJUNDEYIZHIZUOYONGJIAOHAO。YEXUEPINGDENGFAXIAN,GAIJUNHAIKEYINQIWADECHOUCHUZHENG。BINGWAYANBUYOUBAINEIZHANGZHENGZHUANG,SIQIANTUIBUJULIECHOUCHU。SIHUANSU、XIANFENGSAIWODUIGAIJUNDEYIZHIXIAOGUOJIAOHAO。

1.8 腐败希瓦菌

GANRANGAIJUNDEBINGWAYANSHIJIEERSI,CHANGDAOKUILAN。FANWENQIAODENGCONGBINGWASHANGFENLICHUFUBAIXIWAJUN。

1.9 鲍曼不动杆菌

GAIJUNGANRANHOUBINGWASHIYUJIANTUI,XINGDONGCHIHUAN,SHENJINGFANSHENENGLICHA,FUBUHONGZHONGYOUJISHUI。

1.10 布氏柠檬酸杆菌

GAIJUNSHIYIZHONGTIAOJIANZHIBINGJUN,ZAIYIDINGTIAOJIANXIANENGYINQIWADEBAINEIZHANGBING。BINGWAYANQIUTUCHU、HUNZHUO。

1.11 弗氏柠檬杆菌

GAIJUNGANRANHOUWAFUBUZHONGZHANG、QINANGBIANDA。

1.12 迟缓爱德华氏菌

HUANBINGNIUWADESHENTIZHONGDA,FUBUPENGZHANGYOUDALIANGFUSHUI,GANZANGHESHENZANGCHONGXUE。XIAOKEYUDENGCONGBINGWATINEIFENLICHULEGAIJUN,FAXIANGAIJUNDEWAIDUSUBUSHIQIZHIBINGDEYUANYIN,ERNEIDUSUSHIZHIBINGDEYUANYIN。

1.13 链球菌
病蛙舌头伸出口腔,发病前无明显症状,发病后常常暴发性死亡,蛙尸体常在阴凉处发现。病蛙肝脏充血或失血过多呈白色,肠道有炎症病变,其他脏器充血有红斑或失血过多呈白色。陈晓凤等的药敏实验证明,庆大霉素、丁胺卡那霉素、复方新诺明等药物对该菌的抑菌效果较好。陈超然等的实验得出,氨苄青霉素和二氧化氯结合使用治疗效果更好。牛蛙源无乳链球菌全菌疫苗能提高血清抗体水平及总蛋白、免疫球蛋白含量,提高蛙体对链球菌的抵抗能力。

1.14 JINHUANGSEPUTAOQIUJUN

海南七星彩GAIJUNGANRANHOUWAYANBUHUANONG,CHUXIANBAISEMOZHUANGWUZHI,LEISIYUBAINEIZHANGDEZHENGZHUANG。

1.15 JINHUANGGANJUN

BINGWASHIYUBUZHEN,XIAOHUAQIGUANCHUXUE。XIJUNFENLIHEZHIBINGXINGYANJIUSHIYANZHENGSHILEJINHUANGGANJUNWEIBINGYUANJUN。JINHUANGGANJUNDUIPAILAXILINMINGAN。

1.16 豚鼠气单胞菌

海南七星彩TUNSHUQIDANBAOJUNCHANGTONGGUOSHOUSUNDEPIFUJINRUSHUICHANDONGWUTINEI,ZAOCHENGCHUXUE、KUILANDENGBINGZHENG。GAIJUNGANRANDEKEDOUWEIBUCHONGXUE,ZAISHUIMIANSHANGDAZHUAN。GUOXIUPINGDENGDEYAOMINSHIYANFAXIAN,GAIJUNDUILIANMEISU、KANEIMEISU、XINMEISU、ENNUOSHAXINGMINGAN。

1.17 藤黄葡萄球菌与浅黄假单胞菌

TENGHUANGPUTAOQIUJUNYUQIANHUANGJIADANBAOJUNGONGTONGGANRANHOU,YINFAWADEWAITOUBING。ZHISINONGDUSHIYANBIAOMING:DANGLIANGZHONGJUNDEBIZHIWEI1∶1、NONGDUWEI1.1×109 SHI,ZHIBINGXINGZUIQIANG。DUSUCEDINGSHIYANZHONGFAXIANNEIDUSU、WAIDUSUHERONGXUESUDOUXIANSHIWEIYANGXING。NEIDUSUZAOCHENGWADECHUXUEDENGZHENGZHUANG,WAIDUSUHANYOUSHENJINGDUSU,ZAOCHENGSHENJINGCUOLUAN。

海南七星彩2 ZHENJUNXINGBINGYUANJIQIYINQIDEJIBING

2.1 水霉
水霉病常感染蛙卵和蝌蚪,引起暴发性疾病。感染水霉的蛙卵和蝌蚪被白色棉絮团状物质包围,内菌丝可深入损伤的皮肤内部,菌体沿着受损部位延生,最后造成蝌蚪食欲减退,饥饿死亡。

海南七星彩3 BINGDUXINGBINGYUANJIQIYINQIDEJIBING

ZAIZHONGGUODEHUBEISHENGCENGFASHENGGUOWABINGDU3 GANRANWADESHIJIAN,BINGWADESIWANGLVDA80%。BINGDUWA3 SHUYUHONGCAIBINGDUKEDEWABINGDUSHU。WABINGDU3 HUIDAOZHIBINGWASHUIZHONG、CHUXUE、LINBAZUZHI、ZAOXUEZUZHI、GAN、PI、SHENXIAOGUANHUAISI,PIFUSHANGBUGUILVDIFENBUZHEHUIBAISEBANKUAI,CHANGBISHANGYOUHONGBAN,XINZANG、SHENZANGJUYOUBANDIAN。GANZANGCANGBAIYISUI,DANNANGKUODA。ZUZHIGUANCHABIAOMING,XIONGXIANHEQITALINBAZUZHIDELINBAXIBAOSHULIANGJIANSHAOHEHUAISI,GANHUAISI。PIZANGDEBAOJIANGSANBUZHEBAOHANTI。SHENXIAOGUANSHANGPIBIANXING。

4 JISHENGCHONGXINGBINGYUANJIQIYINQIDEJIBING

4.1车轮虫

海南七星彩CHELUNCHONGJISHENGYUKEDOUDEWEIBUHUOSAIBU,DANGDAYIDINGSHULIANGSHI,KEDOUWEIBUYOUBANDIAN,SAISIBIANBAI,NIANYEZENGDUO,HUXIKUNNAN,DAOZHISIWANG。

5 XIAOJIEYUZHANWANG

海南七星彩WAJUYOUYIDINGDEZIRANMIANYILI。WAPIFUBIAOCENGFENMIDEPIFUTAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGYIZHILEBINGYUANJUNDESHENGZHANG。YANGZHIHUANJINGSHIWABINGBAOFADEZHONGYAOTIAOJIAN,SHUIHUANJINGYUECHA,BINGYUANJUNYUERONGYIGANRANWATI。DANGSHUIZHONGTIAOJIANBINGYUANJUNDENONGDUDADAOZHISINONGDUSHI,WATIZAODAOWULIXINGSHANGHAISHICAIHUANBING。TONGYANGDEBINGZHENGKENENGYOUDUOZHONGBUTONGBINGYUANJUNYINQI,BUTONGWACHANGDETONGYIZHONGBINGYUANJUN,DUIYAOWUDEMINGANXINGYEBUTONG,SUOYIZHILIAOYAOCANKAOYAOMINSHIYANDEJIEGUO。

海南七星彩SHUICHANYANGZHIDEBINGHAIFANGZHI“YIFANGWEIZHU,YIZHIWEIFU”。YUFANGKEYINGYONGYIMIAODENGFANGFA。XUDUOYANJIUBIAOMING,YIMIAONENGGOUJIAQIANGWALEIDEKANGBINGNENGLI。KEYONGKANGSHENGSUHEZHONGCAOYAODENGYAOWUZHILIAOWABING。KANGSHENGSUSHIYONGBUDANGHUIZAOCHENGYAOWUCANLIU,ERZHONGCAOYAODUXINGXIAO,TONGGUOCHENGFENZHIJIANDEXIANGHUXIETONGZUOYONGZHILIAOJIBING。

海南七星彩MUQIANDADUOSHUDEWABINGSHIGUANLIBUDANGZAOCHENG,HELIKONGZHIYANGZHIMIDU、HELIKONGZHITOUWEILV、HELISHIYONGKANGJUNYAOWU、BAOCHISHUITIHUANJINGYOULIANG、XUANYONGYOUZHISILIAODENGNENGYOUXIAOBAOZHENGWALEIYANGZHIDEWENDING,YOUXIAOKONGZHIWALEIJIBING。

 

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